Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

Disease Information

Descriptive Information
Brief Title † Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells
Official Title † Protocol for Related Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Treatment of Symptomatic Genetic Lymphohematological Diseases
Brief Summary Many genetic diseases of lymphohematopoietic cells (such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Combined Immune Deficiency (CID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease, X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, and metabolic diseases affecting hematopoiesis) are sublethal diseases caused by mutations that adversely affect the development or function of different types of blood cells. Although pathophysiologically diverse, these genetic diseases share a similar clinical course of significant progressive morbidity, overall poor quality of life, and ultimate death from complications of the disease or its palliative treatment. Supportive care for these diseases includes chronic transfusion, iron chelation, and surgery (splenectomy or cholecystectomy) for the hemoglobinopathies; prophylactic antibiotics, intravenous immunoglobulin, and immunomodulator therapies for the immune deficiencies; and enzyme replacement injections and dietary restriction for some of the metabolic diseases. The suboptimal results of such supportive care measures have led to efforts to implement more aggressive therapeutic interventions to cure these lymphohematopoietic diseases. The most logical strategies for cure of these diseases have been either replacement of the patient's own hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) with those derived from a normal donor allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), or to genetically modify the patient's own stem cells to replace the defective gene (gene therapy).
Detailed Description The present study is to evaluate de-escalation of the cyclophosphamide (CY) dose in an innovative conditioning regimen with fludarabine and alemtuzumab as additional agents to achieve immunoablation, in combination with Busulfan (BU) to achieve myeloablation. Replacement of at least part of the cyclophosphamide dose by fludarabine in the conditioning regimen would be expected to maintain immunosuppression (and, therefore, engraftment) while reducing transplant-related complications (mucositis, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hemorrhagic cystitis, mucositis, and possibly GVHD), thereby improving disease-free survival rates. Similarly, the potential benefits of alemtuzumab in the proposed conditioning regimen are increased rates of hematopoietic engraftment with less toxicity than that observed with cyclophosphamide, ultimately resulting in improved immune function and enhanced quality of life (12,13). A fludarabine/alemtuzumab-based, less intensive conditioning regimen with adequate immunosuppressive activity could conceivably allow more successful engraftment of stem cells from related donors in patients with genetic lymphohematological diseases, as well as lower rates of transplant-related mortality. Regimen-related toxicity is also believed to be a major contributing factor to GVHD (14). Therefore, conditioning regimens that cause less tissue injury may also lead to reduced GVHD. In the present study, the use of alemtuzumab in the conditioning regimen may be an added benefit, as this antibody causes T-cell depletion, thus, the risk of GVHD may also be reduced (15). The overall goal of the study is to improve the therapeutic index of HSCT by decreasing and, if possible, eliminating cyclophosphamide as a component of the pre-transplant conditioning for patients with genetic diseases of lymphohematopoiesis. The investigation will explore the risks and benefits of the proposed novel-conditioning regimen using a decreased dose of cyclophosphamide and additional immunosuppression with fludarabine and alemtuzumab to prevent graft rejection and recurrence of disease. The investigators will evaluate this regimen's impact on conditioning-related morbidity and mortality, and measure the success of the transplant procedure by engraftment and disease-free survival. If this regimen is able to successfully permit engraftment and reduce regimen-related toxicity, the next phase of treatment will test a further dose de-escalation for cyclophosphamide. It is anticipated that there will be four dose levels of cyclophosphamide in the overall study: 1) 105 mg/kg; 2) 70 mg/kg; 3) 35 mg/kg; and then finally, 4) 0 mg/kg. This study design was chosen to minimize study risks possibly associated with substitution of fludarabine and alemtuzumab for CY as immunoablation. The present protocol represents Level 1 in the study design; an amended protocol will be prepared prior to further de-escalation of the cyclophosphamide dose.
Study Phase Phase 2
Study Type † Interventional
Study Design † Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Primary Outcome Measure † Engraftment (recovery of white cell count - self sustain platelet above 20k - evaluation by Chimerism Study (STR or FISH) at day +30
Secondary Outcome Measure † GVHD (clinical evaluation using Glucksberg scale; assessment done on a daily basis)
Condition † Stem Cell Transplantation Bone Marrow Transplantation Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Allogeneic Transplantation, Genetic Diseases Thalassemia Pediatrics Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Combined Immune Deficiency Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Chronic Granulomatous Disease X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease Metabolic Diseases
Intervention † DrugCyclophosphamide Dose Level 1
Study Arms / Comparison Groups Cyclophosphamide Dose Level 1 Cyclophosphamide given by Intravenous (IV) at a total dose of 105 mg/kg, to be divided into three doses of one 35 mg/kg dose per day, for 3 days on the first level. Drug to be given in combination of Busulfan, Campath and Fludarabine Cyclophosphamide Dose Level 2 Cyclophosphamide given by intravenous (IV) at a total dose of 70 mg/kg (divided in two doses) given once a day for two days in combination with Busulfan, Campath and Fludarabine. Cyclophosphamide Dose Level 3 Cyclophosphamide given by intravenous (IV) at total does of 35 mg/kg as a one time dose in combination with Busulfan, Fludarabine and Campath Cyclophosphamide Dose Level 4 No cyclophosphamide given with Busulfan, Fludarabine and Campath
Publications *

* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by National Clinical Trials Identifier (NCT ID) in Medline.

Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status † Drug
Estimated Enrollment † 20
Start Date † February 2007
Completion Date February 2014
Primary Completion Date September 2013
Eligibility Criteria † Inclusion Criteria: - All patients with lethal or sublethal genetic lymphohematological disease (such as Hemaphagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) / Familial Erythophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (FEL), Hurler's Syndrome, Hunter's Syndrome, Kostmann's Syndrome, Blackfan-Diamond Anemia, Chronic granulomatous Disease (CGD), Red Cell Aplasia, CID, Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, Adreno-leukodystrophy, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome, X-Linked Lymphoprolipherative Disease (XLD), Metabolic diseases affecting hematopoiesis, but not limited to), who are candidates for allogeneic transplantation for their disease and have a histocompatible sibling or related donor, ages 0 to 21 years, will be candidates for this study protocol. The suitable related donor is a 10/10 or 9/10 allele Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) match with the patient. All patients who have previously had serious life- threatening events due to disease process may be included in the study. Patients must have adequate physical function and vital organ function to tolerate transplant procedure, as measured by: - Cardiac: Shortening fraction >26% or left ventricular ejection fraction at rest must be > 40%. - Hepatic: Bilirubin, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferese (AST) 50% lower limit of normal for age. - Pulmonary: Forced expiratory volume (FEV)1, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and Diffusing Lung Capacity for Carbon Monoxide (DLCO) (corrected for Hgb) > 50% predicted. For patients where pulse oximetry is performed, O2 saturation > 92% - Evaluation of iron status in patients who have received more than 12 red cell transfusions. Measurements of serum ferritin levels and MRI of the liver and heart tissue will evaluate the iron stores. If high iron load is identified in these organs further evaluation will be done to determine the suitability as transplant recipient. Should these studies indicate that chelation is necessary the following should apply: That the treating hematologist will provide the specific chelation type and timing. Evaluation of organ iron load will be part of the HSCT work-up and if high iron load is identified then the BMT team will work with the hematologist attending in developing a plan for the patient. Exclusion Criteria: - Karnofsky performance status
Gender Both
Ages 3 Months - 21 Years
Accepts Healthy Volunteers No
Contacts ††
Location Countries †
Administrative Information
NCT ID † NCT02512679
Organization ID CCI-06-00177
Secondary IDs ††
Responsible Party Principal Investigator
Study Sponsor † Children's Hospital Los Angeles
Collaborators †† Lucile Packard Children's Hospital
Investigators † Principal Investigator: Neena Kapoor, M.D., Children's Hospital Los Angeles
Information Provided By
Verification Date July 2015
First Received Date † May 21, 2015
Last Updated Date July 29, 2015
† Required WHO trial registration data element.
†† WHO trial registration data element that is required only if it exists.
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