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Acute monoblastic leukemia

Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 5, Acute monocytic leukemia, AML-M5, AML M5

Overview

Acute monocytic leukemia is considered a type of acute myeloid leukemia.. Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 5 is a rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 5 involves the rapid proliferation of monoblasts (immature precursors of monocytes) in particular.

Symptoms - Acute monoblastic leukemia

  • Asthenia
  • Pallor
  • Fever
  • Dizziness
  • Respiratory symptoms
  • Easy bruising
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Coagulation disorders
  • Neurological disorders
  • Enlarged gums
  • Fatigue
  • Palpitations
  • Bone pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Headache
  • Increased risk of infection
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Urination pain
  • Enlarged liver
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Weight loss

Causes - Acute monoblastic leukemia

M5 is associated with characteristic chromosomal abnormalities, often involving Chromosome 11 at 11q23 or t(9;11) affecting the MLL locus, however the MLL translocation is also found in other AML subtypes. MLL is believed to be prognostically unfavorable in AML-M5 compared to other genetic alterations involving MLL such as t(9;11). The t(8;16) translocation in MLL is associated with hemophagocytosis.

Secondary leukaemia, which may include AML-M5, has been associated with exposure to epipodophyllotoxins, such as etoposide.

Prevention - Acute monoblastic leukemia

Not supplied.

Diagnosis - Acute monoblastic leukemia

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Prognosis - Acute monoblastic leukemia

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Treatment - Acute monoblastic leukemia

AML-M5 is treated with intensive chemotherapy (such as anthracyclines) or with bone marrow transplantation. Also, treatment dependant on patients age and condition at time of diagnosis as older patients and those in poor health may not tolerate chemotherapy well. Cytogenetics also dictate which type of treatment is best. Patients under 60 are generally offered intensive treatment. Patients older than sixty may be offered low intensity chemotherapy or supportive care which focuses on keeping the patient as comfortable as possible.

Resources - Acute monoblastic leukemia

  • NIH
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