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Primary hyperoxaluria type 2

[Primary hyperoxaluria: A review].
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[Primary hyperoxaluria: A review].

Nephrol Ther. 2016 Nov;12(6):431-436

Authors: Bouzidi H, Majdoub A, Daudon M, Najjar MF

Abstract
Primary hyperoxalurias (PH) are inborn errors in the metabolism of glyoxalate and oxalate with recessive autosomal transmission. As a result, an increased endogenous production of oxalate leads to exessive urinary oxalate excretion. PH type 1, the most common form, is due to a deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine: Glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) in the liver. PH type 2 is due to the deficiency of the glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate réductase, present in the cytosol of hepatocytes and leucocytes. PH type 3 is linked to the gene HOGA1, encoding a mitochondrial enzyme, the 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-glutarate aldolase. Recurrent urolithiaisis and nephrocalcinosis are the markers of the disease. As a result, a progressive dysfunction of the kidneys is commonly observed. At the stage of severe chronic kidney disease, plasma oxalate increase leads to a systemic oxalosis. Diagnostic is often delayed and it based on stone analysis, cristalluria, oxaluria determination and DNA analysis. Early initiation of conservative treatment including high fluid intake and long-term co-administration of inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization and pyridoxine, could efficiently prevent end stage renal disease. In end stage renal failure, a combined liver-kidney transplantation corrects the enzyme defect.

PMID: 27372182 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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