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Medulloblastoma

The biochemical, nanomechanical and chemometric signatures of brain cancer.
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The biochemical, nanomechanical and chemometric signatures of brain cancer.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2017 Jun 30;188:8-19

Authors: Abramczyk H, Imiela A

Abstract
Raman spectroscopy and imaging combined with AFM topography and mechanical indentation by AFM have been shown to be an effective tool for analysis and discrimination of human brain tumors from normal structures. Raman methods have potential to be applied in clinical practice as they allow for identification of tumor margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate medulloblastoma (grade IV WHO) (n=5) and the tissue from the negative margins used as normal controls. We compare a high grade medulloblastoma (IV grade), and non-tumor samples from human central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Based on the properties of the Raman vibrational spectra and Raman images we provide a real-time feedback that is label-free method to monitor tumor metabolism that reveals reprogramming of biosynthesis of lipids, and proteins. We have found that the high-grade tumors of central nervous system (medulloblastoma) exhibit enhanced level of β-sheet conformation and down-regulated level of α-helix conformation when comparing against normal tissue. We have shown that the ratio of Raman intensities I2930/I2845 at 2930 and 2845cm(-1) is a good source of information on the ratio of lipid and protein contents. We have found that the ratio reflects the lipid and protein contents of tumorous brain tissue compared to the non-tumor tissue. Almost all brain tumors have the Raman intensity ratios significantly higher (1.99±0.026) than that found in non-tumor brain tissue, which is 1.456±0.02, and indicates that the relative amount of lipids compared to proteins is significantly higher in the normal brain tissue. Mechanical indentation using AFM on sliced human brain tissues (medulloblastoma, grade IV) revealed that the mechanical properties of this tissue are strongly heterogeneous, between 1.8 and 75.7kPa, and the mean of 27.16kPa. The sensitivity and specificity obtained directly from PLSDA and cross validation gives a sensitivity and specificity of 98.5% and 96% and 96.3% and 92% for cross-validation, respectively. The high sensitivity and specificity demonstrates usefulness for a proper decision for a Raman diagnostic test on biochemical alterations monitored by Raman spectroscopy related to brain cancer development.

PMID: 28688336 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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