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Hereditary multiple exostoses

Retinoid roles and action in skeletal development and growth provide the rationale for an ongoing heterotopic ossification prevention trial.
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Retinoid roles and action in skeletal development and growth provide the rationale for an ongoing heterotopic ossification prevention trial.

Bone. 2017 Aug 19;:

Authors: Pacifici M

Abstract
The majority of skeletal elements develop via endochondral ossification. This process starts with formation of mesenchymal cell condensations at prescribed sites and times in the early embryo and is followed by chondrogenesis, growth plate cartilage maturation and hypertrophy, and replacement of cartilage with bone and marrow. This complex stepwise process is reactivated and recapitulated in physiologic conditions such as fracture repair, but can occur extraskeletally in pathologies including heterotopic ossification (HO), Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL) and Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME). One form of HO is common and is triggered by trauma, invasive surgeries or burns and is thus particularly common amongst severely wounded soldiers. There is also a congenital and very severe form of HO that occurs in children with Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) and is driven by activating mutations in ACVR1 encoding the type I bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor ALK2. Current treatments for acquired HO, including NSAIDs and local irradiation, are not always effective and can have side effects, and there is no effective treatment for HO in FOP. This review article describes the research path we took several years ago to develop a new and effective treatment for both congenital and acquired forms of HO and specifically, the testing of synthetic retinoid agonists to block the initial and critical chondrogenic step leading to HO onset and progression. We summarize studies with mouse models of injury-induced and congenital HO demonstrating the effectiveness and mode of action of the retinoid agonists, including Palovarotene. Our studies have provided the rationale for, directly led to, an ongoing phase 2 FDA clinical trial to test efficacy and safety of Palovarotene in FOP. Top-line results released a few months ago by the pharmaceutical sponsor Clementia are very encouraging. Given shared developmental pathways amongst pathologies of extraskeletal tissue formation, Palovarotene may also be effective in HME as preliminary in vitro data suggest.

PMID: 28826842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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