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Primary hyperoxaluria type 2

Updated genetic testing of Italian patients referred with a clinical diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria.
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Updated genetic testing of Italian patients referred with a clinical diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria.

J Nephrol. 2017 Apr;30(2):219-225

Authors: Pelle A, Cuccurullo A, Mancini C, Sebastiano R, Stallone G, Negrisolo S, Benetti E, Peruzzi L, Petrarulo M, De Marchi M, Marangella M, Amoroso A, Giachino D, Mandrile G

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a rare autosomal recessive disease commonly arising in childhood and presenting with nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and/or chronic renal failure. Three genes are currently known as responsible: alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT, PH type 1), glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR, PH type 2), and 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase (HOGA1, PH type 3). In our Centre, at the end of 2014 molecular diagnosis of PH1 had been performed in 80 patients, while one patient received a PH2 diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients referred to our Centre and suspected to have PH on clinical grounds were negative for pathogenic variants in the entire coding sequence and exon-intron boundaries of the AGXT gene. Therefore, we extended the analysis to the AGXT promoter region and the GRHPR and HOGA1 genes.
RESULTS: Two patients were heterozygous for two novel AGXT-promoter variants (c.-647C > T, c.-424C > T) that were probably non pathogenic. One patient was homozygous for a novel HOGA1 variant of intron 2 (c.341-81delT), whose pathogenicity predicted by in silico splicing tools was not confirmed by a minigene splicing assay in COS-7 and HEK293T cells.
CONCLUSION: New genetic subtypes of PH can be hypothesized in our patients, that may be caused by mutations in other gene encoding proteins of glyoxylate metabolism. Alternatively, some kind of mutations (e.g., deletions/duplications, deep intronic splicing regulatory variants) could be missed in a few cases, similarly to other genetic diseases.

PMID: 26946417 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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