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Differential Requirement for P2X7R Function in IL-17 Dependent vs. IL-17 Independent Cellular Immune Responses.

Am J Transplant. 2014 May 27;

Authors: Sullivan JA, Jankowska-Gan E, Shi L, Roenneburg D, Hegde S, Greenspan DS, Wilkes DS, Denlinger LC, Burlingham WJ

Abstract
IL17-dependent autoimmunity to collagen type V (Col V) has been associated with lung transplant obliterative bronchiolitis. Unlike the T helper 1 (Th1)-dependent immune responses to Tetanus Toxoid (TT), the Th17 response to Col V in lung transplant patients and its Th1/17 variant observed in coronary artery disease patients requires IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α and CD14(+) cells. Given the involvement of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in monocyte IL-1β responses, we investigated its role in Th17-, Th1/17- and Th1-mediated proinflammatory responses. Transfer of antigen-pulsed peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) from Col V-reactive patients into SCID mouse footpads along with P2X7R antagonists revealed a selective inhibition of Col V-, but not TT-specific swelling responses. P2X7R inhibitors blocked IL-1β induction from monocytes, including both Col V-α1 peptide-induced (T-dependent), as well as native Col V-induced (T-independent) responses. Significantly higher P2X7R expression was found on CXCR3(neg) CCR4(+) /6(+) CD4(+) [Th17] versus CXCR3(+) CCR4/6(neg) CD4(+) [Th1] subsets in PBMCs, suggesting that the paradigm of selective dependence on P2X7R might extend beyond Col V autoimmunity. Indeed, P2X7R inhibitors suppressed not only anti-Col V, but also Th1/17-mediated alloimmunity, in a heart transplant patient without affecting anti-viral Epstein-Barr virus responses. These results suggest that agents targeting the P2X7R might effectively treat Th17-related transplant pathologies, while maintaining Th1-immunity to infection.

PMID: 24866539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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